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Truffles with cheese and many flavors

Truffles with cheese and many flavors


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We prepare the kinds of cheese in a bowl and we obtain a homogeneous paste from which we form small balls. We prepare small bowls in which we put separately, parsley, red pepper, cumin and sesame in which we "roll" each ball. Refrigerate for 1 hour.

Good appetite!!!


Truffles with cheese and many flavors - Recipes

Hilly areas are more favorable because the soil moisture is kept constant by periodic rains as opposed to the dry climate on the coast. The best areas are wind-protected valleys, where the ground remains wetter. White truffles grow at an altitude of no more than 700 meters above sea level. It is very important that the pH of the soil should be a minimum of 6.8 to a maximum of 8.5.

Truffles grow when there is harmony among environmental conditions. For white truffles, the soil surface should be slightly moist. The soil is endowed with limestone, poor in phosphorus and nitrogen, rich in potassium, and close to springs. Common plants that live in symbiosis with white truffles are: different varieties of oaks (cerro, rovere, roverella) different varieties of willow (Salix caprea, salix viminalis, white salix) White poplar Black poplar Large-linden leaves (tiglio) Black carpinus sweet chestnut lime and hazelnuts. Usually, the characteristic colors and aromas of truffles are determined by the type of tree with which it grows. Truffles that grow next to oak will have a more intense color, while those near lime will be less fragrant. Their shape will depend on the soil: if the soil is soft the truffles will be smoother and rounder, if the soil is more solid, the truffles will be gnarled.


Something else?

You can store the mayo in a sealed container in the refrigerator for up to a week.

There are many ways you can enjoy your homemade mayo. You can spread it on a sandwich, you can include it in a chicken salad or you can use it as a base for dressings and dips.

However, keep in mind that homemade mayonnaise is still very high in calories, so pay attention to the size of your portion.

At the end of the day, a little homemade mayonnaise with high quality ingredients is a delicious way to add healthy fats to your diet.


Oreo truffles

1. Put 9 biscuits in a blender and set aside. Pass the remaining 36 biscuits and put them in a bowl. Add the cream cheese and mix well. Roll the mixture into 42 balls.

2. Pass the balls through the chocolate and place them on a baking sheet. Sprinkle with mashed biscuits, set aside.

3. Leave in the fridge to harden for about 1 hour.

You have to see it too.


Content

The name truffle comes from the Latin word tuber, meaning lump, which in time became tufer and gave rise to various terms in European languages: truffle in French, truffle - Romanian, truffle - English, Trüffel - German, Trüffel - Dutch, tartufo - Italian, TARTUFI - Croatian etc.

The first uses of truffles appeared 4,000 years ago. The ancients believed that truffles had magical powers and were used as food, aphrodisiac and medicine.
The Babylonian kings ate truffles wrapped in papyrus and fried on the embers, and the pharaohs were not absent from the table of delicacies.
The Romans considered them strong aphrodisiacs, Julius Caesar was passionate about the taste of truffles he ate daily. The Roman author Apicus, in Book VII, proposes several ways to prepare truffles, which had the role of preparing lovers for love games. Cicero said that truffles are "children of the earth", while Plutarch considered that truffles "appear as a result of lightning, water and heat from the earth". [6].
Muhammad said that truffles are a manna sent by Allah to the people, and the resulting juice would be a miraculous medicine for the eyes. [7]. At that time, the most popular truffles came from Libya.

Their magical properties were rediscovered only in the late eighteenth century in France.

King Francis I consumed truffles frequently before his love affairs and at his sumptuous banquets where dishes had to be seasoned with truffles, and Louis XIV consumed them daily between different dishes.

In the Romanian Principalities, truffles appear in the book 200 sought-after recipes for dishes, cakes and other household chores, the first Romanian cookbook with recipes prepared by Mihail Kogalniceanu and Costache Negruzzi, printed in Cyrillic in Iasi, in 1841.

The genus was first described under the current name (2019) by the Italian botanist and mycologist Pier Antonio Micheli in his work Nova plantarum genera, juxta Tournefortii methodum disposita of 1729 [8] and confirmed by the German botanist and physician Friedrich Heinrich Wiggers (1746-1811) in his book Primitiae Florae Holsaticae since 1780. [9] This taxon is only valid to date (2019). All other renaming attempts have never been used and may be neglected.

Truffles grow mainly in the forest, in the soil, under thick layers of dead leaves, at a depth of 5-40 cm, but can also be found up to 50 cm deep.

It prefers clayey and calcareous soils, generally sloping, of neutral or alkaline type with a thick layer of humus, where there are few deep plants, and the trees are at a distance from each other.

In a hierarchy of the importance of host trees, the most common are the different species of oaks, hornbeam, beech, black fir, as well as different species of linden, hazelnut, spruce, poplar and willow.

Truffles appear in spring - summer in April-June, and autumn - winter in September-December and grow only in cycles of 20-30 years, after which they disappear completely.

The truffles have the shape of a potato tuber, round or ovoid, with protuberances or large convolutions of polygonal shape. Compared to other edible mushroom species, truffles have no hat or leg. Ascocarp (edible fruit), consists of peridium (outer bark), fine or scaly and glebă, has a very pleasant taste and smell. Ascocarp is also made up of hyphae, which usually forms a tissue. The soil is made of a dark fertile material, and is divided by a thick rib, white or yellowish tailings. [10]

The diameter can be between 4-12 cm, and the weight is between 100-200 g, but truffles of about 1 kg have also been found.

Depending on the species of truffle, the outer shell is dark, black-blue, black-brown, purple or white.

Truffles have an exceptional taste and aroma.

The main 10 aromas of truffle are: [11]

    : 7,5% : 4,5%
  • 2-methylpropanal: 5%
  • 2-methylbutanal: 4%: 27%
  • 2-methylpropanol: 21%
  • 2-methylbutanal: 17%: 8%
  • 2-butane: 2.5%
  • 1 propanol: 2%

Truffles are rich in mineral salts, vitamins in small quantities, from the complex B and PP, E, 75-85% water, protein and only 25% dry matter:

  • 20.4% organic matter
  • 2.4% nitrogen
  • 2.2% ash
  • 18.90% phosphoric acid
  • 2.40% sulfuric acid
  • 0.41% chlorine and iodine
  • 7.48% carbonates
  • 8.85% magnesium
  • 23.77% potassium
  • 0.60% sodium
  • 7.50% iron and aluminum peroxide
  • 28.05% silica
  • 10.04% carbonic acid and magnesium dioxide.

Truffle proteins are 4.5% and contain the following amino acids: leucine, threonine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isolaeucine, histidine and soluble carbohydrates 0.17-0.36%. Protein contains 37 Kcal per 100 g of fresh truffles.

Lipids are about 2% of which unsaturated fatty acids, essential and useful fatty acids.

Truffles produce a volatile alcohol whose geranium scent acts as a sex hormone and whose chemical formula is similar to that of testosterone.

About 86 species are part of the Tuber family. About 20 species are found in Europe, only a few have gastronomic value. There are white truffles and black truffles, each has several varieties.

White truffles Edit

The white truffles are creamy yellow, with a smell of ozone and a slight smell of garlic.

    (Tuber albidum) (spring white truffle): it is marketed in Italy as 'Bianchetto' and in France as 'blanquette'. (hollow truffle): it is of inferior quality, it quickly becomes woody. (white Piedmontese truffle): grows only spontaneously only in certain parts of Italy and southeastern Europe their season is from late September to November, or even December depending on the region. The most famous and expensive white truffles come from the Piedmontese town of Alba, in northern Italy, but also from Tuscany, Romagna and Marche. (red truffle): it is of low value due to the pistachio smell and the somewhat tenacious consistency of the meat.

Black truffles Edit

The smell of black truffles is often described as earthy, pungent, euphoric and even sexy. They have a strong aroma of musk, ozone, nuts and mushrooms. There are black summer truffles and black winter truffles.

    (black summer truffle): it is the most widespread variety, being found even in Central Europe, Turkey and Great Britain can be harvested from July to September.
    (winter black truffle): smaller in size and smells different from other truffles . (truffle with large spores): a species that is less common, being a pretentious truffle in climatic and soil conditions, has a scent similar to that of white truffle, and the exterior is reddish-brown. The optimal harvest period is September-December. In France it is called "Truffe Lisse" and in Italy "Liscio Nero". (French black truffle): it is called 'Truffe du Périgord' in France the season is from December to March and the harvest is regulated by the state in the countries where it occurs. (gaseous truffle): it is a truffle very similar to summer truffle, but it is distinguished by the intense smell of phenol. The optimal harvest period is October-December. (Burgundy truffle): known in France as ‘Truffe de Bourgogne’, it is actually a variety of Tuber aestivum, which appears from September to January, even March.

Asian Truffle Change

    : are also called Himalayan tuber, Pseudo-Himalayan tuber and Tuber sinense their appearance is almost identical to T. melanosporum they are only used to decorate plates. Chinese truffles are cheaper, less fragrant and with a different texture.

Fake truffle Change

Called the desert truffle, it is similar to the real one, it does not have its own taste but it is endowed with a very high capacity to absorb the aromas around it.

The main varieties of truffles identified on the Romanian territory are: Tuber magnatum, T. aestivum, T. uncinatum, T. brumare, T. macrosporum, T. mesentericum, Choirmyces Meandriformis, pork truffle, sand truffle or desert truffle. [12]

They are found in warmer areas, in the south or in the west of the country, in rare deciduous forests, around beeches, oaks, preferring the slopes exposed to the sun. [13]

Pork truffle (Choiromyces meandriformis) Change

Also called the white truffle of Transylvania, it is a truffle specific to the Romanian climate in the Carpathian basin, especially in Transylvania. It has a color that mimics marble, a very strong smell and can reach a weight of 650 g. It is sometimes found on the surface of the earth. The optimal harvest period is June-October. [14]

Sand Truffle (Mattirolomyces terfezioides sin. Terfezia terfezioides) Change

It is also called fishing truffle, it appears in the layers of sand deposited by the Danube next to the white acacia. It varies between the size of a walnut and an apple, with an irregular, globular shape, a smooth, sometimes cracked surface. The initial white color turns ocher yellow at maturity. It has a strong camembert smell. It is found mainly in North African countries, such as Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco.

The sand truffle is a truffle-like species, it is not part of the Tuber family but belongs to the genus Terfezia. [15]

The search for truffles is done with the help of specialized dogs or pigs.

In the past, pigs were used to find them. Due to the fact that they ate truffles, they switched to using specially trained dogs, all truffles thus reaching the basket of the collector and the menu of various luxury restaurants.

Currently, in most European countries truffles are sought after by specially trained dogs. Lagotto Romagnolo, is the only dog ​​breed recognized for its special olfactory qualities, which allow it to identify places where truffles grow.

Each of the two methods - dogs and pigs - has both typical advantages and disadvantages.

Another method of searching for truffles is to closely monitor the behavior of some species of flies, the most common of which is Suillia gigantea. It is a large fly, has a cumbersome movement and an imperfect flight. It usually appears around truffles or in places where truffles are found.

Truffle crops are made by planting seedlings inoculated at the root with truffle spores.
Louis XIV of France was the first to commission the first research dedicated to the cultivation of truffles.

Experiments with mycorrhizal seedlings took place first in Europe, then spread to other parts of the world. The species of trees that can be inseminated with truffle spores are varied. The most recommended are oak, hornbeam, pine, hazelnut. [16]

In the 19th century, truffles became an important branch of agriculture in France. At the beginning of the twentieth century, French truffle farming developed, the volume harvested annually being 1000 tons. However, the two world wars led to a drastic decrease in production.

Over 80% of the truffles currently produced in France come from specialist plantations. There are also truffle plantations in, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, USA, Australia, Chile.

The first black truffle plantation in the Western Hemisphere emerged in the early 1980s in Hillsborough, North Carolina, when farmer Franklin Garland invested in the business. In 1993 he began to harvest truffles similar in quality to those harvested naturally in France.

The largest truffle plantation is located in Spain, in Naveleno, in the province of Soria. 330,000 mycorrhizal seedlings with truffles are planted there, on an area of ​​600 hectares of land.

Worldwide, the demand for truffles is constantly increasing, while the supply is decreasing, due to the harvest that brings variable results. For this reason, French researchers are looking for methods to clone black truffles.

The exploitation of truffles is also developing in Romania where several investments have been made in truffle crops, this activity becoming over time an increasingly profitable business. [17] Romanian truffles have a higher quality taste than those harvested from other countries, most of the Romanian truffle harvests being exported to Italy. [18]

Truffle pesto - a paste of black summer truffles

Truffle oil - olive oil with pieces of truffles

Truffle pate - fatty sheet, duck liver stick or goose with black truffles in the middle

Honey with truffles: polyfloral honey with black summer truffles

Black Moth Vodka - vodka infused with black Perigord truffles

Truffle carpaccio - very thin slices of truffle in a jar

Chocolate - chocolate from pieces of black truffles

Truffle-flavored butter or salsa with butter and truffles

At the end of 2007, in the region of a single locality, France obtained a record production of about 4.5 tons of truffles per month.

In 2013, the price of black truffles was 400 euros per kilogram. [19] In 2014, the price fell to EUR 60 per kilogram. [19]

The most expensive truffle was sold in 2007 to a casino owner in Macau, who paid $ 330,000 for 1.5 kilograms of white truffles.

Autumn is the season for local truffle festivals in different regions of Italy, France and Spain. Here are some of them: [20]


TASTES.

What can I tell you, it turned out insanely good, just like a kind of pie that was once found in Piatra, at "Spicul", and which was served with yogurt.

I don't know if borek or burek is correct, but because it is called borek in Turkish, I also said I found the variants Byrek (Albania) boereg (Armenia) burek (former Yugoslavia) Бюрек, byurek (Bulgaria) Μπουρέκι, bouréki or & # 160 Μπουρεκάκι bourekáki (Greece) bourekas / burekas (Israel) cheburek (Russia) brik (Tunisia) si börek (Turkey).
I also put some pictures, but they are not successful because I took them at night.




I finished it late, but I ate it with a lot of appetite (hot is better).

2 comments:

Merry Christmas! Good health and good luck! Fun!

Good health, happiness in the soul, peace in the house and many accomplishments in the coming year, with loved ones.
Happy celebrations!


Description

Have you ever heard of the combination of artichokes and Black Truffles (Tuber AestivumVitt) or have you ever tasted artichokes and black truffles? From now on you will have the opportunity to try this culinary combination between artichokes and black truffles.
Urbani Tartufi has created for you a unique and appetizing sauce: ARTICHOKE SAUCE AND BLACK TRUFFLES. Presented in an elegant glass jar to keep the aroma and freshness of the taste intact, this BLACK GRINDING AND TRUFFLE SAUCE awaits the consumer with an adventurous spirit.
Just warm up a bit to make tempting appetizers, delicious omelettes, various risottos or seasoning pasta sauces. This artichoke sauce with black truffles ensures the possibility to combine with different meats or fish and perfectly seasons the famous lamb chop.

Recommended amount per serving: 30g / product.
After opening, it is recommended to store it in the refrigerator and consume it for no more than 5 days.

Country of origin: ITALY Product of: URBANI TARTUFI SRL
Importer: TRUFA ROM SRL


Ingredients for the Easter recipe with truffles, mushrooms and sour cream,

  • 160 g dry pasta (2 servings)
  • 200 g mushroom mix
  • 100 ml sweet cream
  • A small onion
  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 30 g butter
  • 50 ml chicken soup or water (if needed)
  • 30 g race parmesan
  • 30 g pecorino ras
  • Optional: truffle oil, preserved truffle
  • Salt pepper

Total preparation time :

  • Boil pasta: 15 minutes (6 minutes after boiling water or according to the instructions on the package)
  • Sauce preparation: 15 minutes
  • Completion: 5 minutes

Necessary tools :

  • Sharp knife
  • A wooden or plastic bottom, as solid as possible
  • Frying pan with a diameter of 25-28 cm
  • Wooden / silicone spatula
  • Pasta cooking pot (according to the instructions on the package)

Method of preparation

Finely chop the onion, garlic and mushrooms.

Bring water to a boil for pasta. From the moment it boils you can add the pasta, and you only have 6 minutes left!

Add the butter to the pan over medium heat and add the mushrooms. Add very little salt and let it caramelize as well as possible (minimum 5-6 minutes). If necessary (very dry or older mushrooms) add 1-2 tablespoons of soup or water.

Add the onion and garlic and let it soften with the mushrooms for 1-2 minutes.

Pasta with truffles, mushrooms and sour cream, quick recipe

Add the sweet cream and simmer over medium heat until reduced by half (2-3 minutes) or until the desired consistency is reached.

Add the cooked pasta. If you need to thin the sauce, you can use 1-2 tablespoons of pasta water & ndash will enrich the final taste and the residual starch will help thicken the sauce

Let it boil together for 2-3 minutes. Add pecorino and grated Parmesan cheese and mix. It can be seasoned with truffle oil or slices of preserved or fresh truffle. Attention, the truffles have a strong scent, just add a little!

Useful advice :

  • There are many brands of good quality pasta. Use a good brand!
  • You can use fresh pasta instead of dry ones
  • In large stores you can find frozen, fresh or canned truffles. The alternative is to order them online from a trusted store.
  • If you use mushrooms in the mushroom mix, we recommend that you do not use truffles in this combination. Both mushrooms are very fragrant and each is enhanced by the rest of the ingredients that have a more balanced flavor. Food needs a single dominant flavor.

The recipe and the pictures belong to Marius Giorgian Constantin and he participates in the competition & bdquoThe great autumn contest, with guaranteed prizes, without drawing lots & rdquo. You can find more recipes published by her here.


Description

Cream of blue cheese and wild truffles

Cream of blue cheese and wild truffles La Chinata is a delicious combination made with extra virgin olive oil. The cheese with mold gives it an intense aroma and the truffles bring a sophisticated and original note. It is ideal for a snack with crackers, grilled meat, complicated sauces or for the best pasta recipes.

Ingredients: blue cheese (24%) (cow's milk, lactic ferments, rennet, Penicillium roqueforti), semi-matured mixed cheese (20%), (cow's milk, sheep's milk, goat's milk, salt, rennet), butter, cow's milk, extra virgin olive oil (1%), mushrooms (1%), salt, Tuber melanosporum truffle (0.2%), emulsifiers (E-450, E-452, E-339, E-401, E -410), antioxidant (E-330), preservative (E-202), natural thickener (E-415), flavors.


Content

The name truffle comes from the Latin word tuber, meaning lump, which in time became tufer and gave rise to various terms in European languages: truffle in French, truffle - Romanian, truffle - English, Trüffel - German, Trüffel - Dutch, tartufo - Italian, TARTUFI - Croatian etc.

The first uses of truffles appeared 4,000 years ago. The ancients believed that truffles had magical powers and were used as food, aphrodisiac and medicine.
The Babylonian kings ate truffles wrapped in papyrus and fried on the embers, and the pharaohs were not absent from the table of delicacies.
The Romans considered them strong aphrodisiacs, Julius Caesar was passionate about the taste of truffles he ate daily. The Roman author Apicus, in Book VII, proposes several ways to prepare truffles, which had the role of preparing lovers for love games. Cicero said that truffles are "children of the earth", while Plutarch considered that truffles "appear as a result of lightning, water and heat from the earth". [6].
Muhammad said that truffles are a manna sent by Allah to the people, and the resulting juice would be a miraculous medicine for the eyes. [7]. At that time, the most popular truffles came from Libya.

Their magical properties were rediscovered only in the late eighteenth century in France.

King Francis I consumed truffles frequently before his love affairs and at his sumptuous banquets where the dishes had to be seasoned with truffles, and Louis XIV consumed them daily between different dishes.

In the Romanian Principalities, truffles appear in the book 200 sought-after recipes for dishes, cakes and other household chores, the first Romanian cookbook with recipes prepared by Mihail Kogalniceanu and Costache Negruzzi, printed in Cyrillic in Iasi, in 1841.

The genus was first described under the current name (2019) by Italian botanist and mycologist Pier Antonio Micheli in his work Nova plantarum genera, juxta Tournefortii methodum disposita of 1729 [8] and confirmed by the German botanist and physician Friedrich Heinrich Wiggers (1746-1811) in his book Primitiae Florae Holsaticae since 1780. [9] This taxon is only valid to date (2019). All other renaming attempts have never been used and may be neglected.

Truffles grow mainly in the forest, in the soil, under thick layers of dead leaves, at a depth of 5-40 cm, but can also be found up to 50 cm deep.

It prefers clayey and calcareous soils, generally sloping, of neutral or alkaline type with a thick layer of humus, where there are few deep plants, and the trees are at a distance from each other.

In a hierarchy of the importance of host trees, the most common are the different species of oaks, hornbeam, beech, black fir, as well as different species of linden, hazelnut, spruce, poplar and willow.

Truffles appear in spring - summer in April-June, and autumn - winter in September-December and grow only in cycles of 20-30 years, after which they disappear completely.

The truffles have the shape of a potato tuber, round or ovoid, with protuberances or large convolutions of polygonal shape. Compared to other edible mushroom species, truffles have no hat or leg. Ascocarp (edible fruit), consists of peridium (outer bark), fine or scaly and glebă, has a very pleasant taste and smell. Ascocarp is also made up of hyphae, which usually forms a tissue. The soil is made of a dark fertile material, and is divided by a thick rib, white or yellowish tailings. [10]

The diameter can be between 4-12 cm, and the weight is between 100-200 g, but truffles of about 1 kg have also been found.

Depending on the species of truffle, the outer shell is dark, black-blue, black-brown, purple or white.

Truffles have an exceptional taste and aroma.

The main 10 aromas of truffle are: [11]

    : 7,5% : 4,5%
  • 2-methylpropanal: 5%
  • 2-methylbutanal: 4%: 27%
  • 2-methylpropanol: 21%
  • 2-methylbutanal: 17%: 8%
  • 2-butane: 2.5%
  • 1 propanol: 2%

Truffles are rich in mineral salts, vitamins in small quantities, from the complex B and PP, E, 75-85% water, protein and only 25% dry matter:

  • 20.4% organic matter
  • 2.4% nitrogen
  • 2.2% ash
  • 18.90% phosphoric acid
  • 2.40% sulfuric acid
  • 0.41% chlorine and iodine
  • 7.48% carbonates
  • 8.85% magnesium
  • 23.77% potassium
  • 0.60% sodium
  • 7.50% iron and aluminum peroxide
  • 28.05% silica
  • 10.04% carbonic acid and magnesium dioxide.

Truffle proteins are 4.5% and contain the following amino acids: leucine, threonine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isolaeucine, histidine and soluble carbohydrates 0.17-0.36%. Protein contains 37 Kcal per 100 g of fresh truffles.

Lipids are about 2% of which unsaturated fatty acids, essential and useful fatty acids.

Truffles produce a volatile alcohol whose geranium scent acts as a sex hormone and whose chemical formula is similar to that of testosterone.

About 86 species are part of the Tuber family. About 20 species are found in Europe, only a few have gastronomic value. There are white truffles and black truffles, each has several varieties.

White truffles Edit

The white truffles are creamy yellow, with a smell of ozone and a slight smell of garlic.

    (Tuber albidum) (spring white truffle): it is marketed in Italy as 'Bianchetto' and in France as 'blanquette'. (hollow truffle): it is of inferior quality, it quickly becomes woody. (white Piedmontese truffle): grows only spontaneously only in certain parts of Italy and southeastern Europe their season is from late September to November, or even December depending on the region. The most famous and expensive white truffles come from the Piedmontese town of Alba, in northern Italy, but also from Tuscany, Romagna and Marche. (red truffle): it is of low value due to the pistachio smell and the somewhat tenacious consistency of the meat.

Black truffles Edit

The smell of black truffles is often described as earthy, pungent, euphoric and even sexy. They have a strong aroma of musk, ozone, nuts and mushrooms. There are black summer truffles and black winter truffles.

    (black summer truffle): it is the most widespread variety, being found even in Central Europe, Turkey and Great Britain can be harvested from July to September.
    (winter black truffle): smaller in size and smells different from other truffles . (truffle with large spores): a species that is less common, being a pretentious truffle in climatic and soil conditions, has a scent similar to that of white truffle, and the exterior is reddish-brown. The optimal harvest period is September-December. In France it is called "Truffe Lisse" and in Italy "Liscio Nero". (French black truffle): it is called 'Truffe du Périgord' in France the season is from December to March and the harvest is regulated by the state in the countries where it occurs. (gaseous truffle): it is a truffle very similar to summer truffle, but it is distinguished by the intense smell of phenol. The optimal harvest period is October-December. (Burgundy truffle): known in France as ‘Truffe de Bourgogne’, it is actually a variety of Tuber aestivum, which appears from September to January, even March.

Asian Truffle Change

    : are also called Himalayan tuber, Pseudo-Himalayan tuber and Tuber sinense their appearance is almost identical to T. melanosporum they are only used to decorate plates. Chinese truffles are cheaper, less fragrant and with a different texture.

Fake truffle Change

Called the desert truffle, it is similar to the real one, it has no taste of its own but it is endowed with a very high capacity to absorb the aromas around it.

The main varieties of truffles identified on the Romanian territory are: Tuber magnatum, T. aestivum, T. uncinatum, T. brumare, T. macrosporum, T. mesentericum, Choirmyces Meandriformis, pork truffle, sand truffle or desert truffle. [12]

They are found in warmer areas, in the south or in the west of the country, in rare deciduous forests, around beeches, oaks, preferring the slopes exposed to the sun. [13]

Pork truffle (Choiromyces meandriformis) Change

Also called the white truffle of Transylvania, it is a truffle specific to the Romanian climate in the Carpathian basin, especially in Transylvania. It has a color that mimics marble, a very strong smell and can reach a weight of 650 g. It is sometimes found on the surface of the earth. The optimal harvest period is June-October. [14]

Sand Truffle (Mattirolomyces terfezioides sin. Terfezia terfezioides) Change

It is also called the fishing truffle, it appears in the layers of sand deposited by the Danube next to the white acacia. Variază între mărimea unei nuci și a unui măr, cu formă neregulată, globulară, suprafață netedă, uneori crăpată. Culoarea inițială albă se transformă în galben ocru la maturitate. Are un miros puternic de camembert. Este întâlnită în special în țările din nordul Africii, cum ar fi Algeria, Tunisia, Maroc.

Trufa de nisip este o specie asemănătoare trufelor, nu face parte din familia Tuber ci aparține genului Terfezia. [15]

Căutarea de trufe se face cu ajutorul câinilor sau porcilor specializați.

În trecut, la găsirea lor se foloseau porcii. Datorită faptului că aceștia mâncau trufele, s-a trecut la folosirea câinilor special dresați, toate trufele ajungând, astfel, în coșul culegătorului și în meniul diverselor restaurante de lux.

În prezent, în majoritatea țărilor europene trufele sunt căutate cu câini special dresați. Lagotto Romagnolo, este singura rasă de câini recunoscută pentru calitățile olfactive deosebite, care-i permit identificarea locurilor unde cresc trufele.

Fiecare dintre cele două metode - câinii și porcii - are deopotrivă avantaje și dezavantaje tipice.

O altă metodă de căutare a trufelor este urmărirea atentă a comportamentului unor specii de muște, dintre care cea mai răspândită este Suillia gigantea. Este o muscă de dimensiuni mari, are o mișcare greoaie și un zbor imperfect. Apare, de obicei, în jurul trufelor sau în locurile unde se găsesc trufele.

Culturile de trufe se realizează prin plantarea unor puieți inoculați la rădăcină cu spori de trufă.
Ludovic al XIV-lea al Franței a fost primul care a comandat prima cercetare dedicată cultivării trufelor.

Experimentele cu puieți micorizați au avut loc mai întâi în Europa, apoi s-au răspândit și în alte zone ale lumii. Speciile de arbori care pot fi inseminate cu spori de trufă sunt variate. Cele mai recomandate sunt stejarul, carpenul, pinul, alunul. [16]

În secolul al XIX-lea trufele devin în Franța o ramură importantă a agriculturii. La începutul secolului XX, truficultura franceză s-a dezvoltat, volumul recoltat anual fiind de 1000 tone. Cele două războaie mondiale au dus însă la scăderea drastică a producției.

Peste 80% din trufele produse în prezent în Franța vin de pe plantații specializate. Se mai întâlnesc plantații de trufe în, Spania, Italia, Marea Britanie, S.U.A., Australia, Chile.

Prima plantație de trufe negre din emisfera de vest, a apărut la începutul anilor ’80, în Hillsborough, Carolina de Nord, când agricultorul Franklin Garland a investit în această afacere. În 1993 a început să recolteze trufe asemănătoare calitativ cu cele recoltate natural înFranța.

Cea mai mare plantație de trufe se află în Spania, la Naveleno, în provincia Soria. Sunt plantați acolo, pe o suprafață de 600 de hectare de teren, 330.000 de puieți micorizați cu trufe.

Pe plan mondial, cererea de trufe este în continuă creștere, în timp ce oferta scade, datorită recoltării ce aduce rezultate variabile. Din acest motiv, cercetătorii francezi sunt în căutarea unor metode de clonare a trufelor negre.

Exploatarea trufei se dezvoltă și în România unde au fost făcute câteva invesții în culturi de trufe, această activitate devenind în timp o afacere tot mai profitabilă. [17] Trufa din România are un gust calitativ superior celei recoltate din alte țări, cea mai mare parte a recoltelor de trufe din România exportându-se în Italia. [18]

Pesto de trufe - pastă din trufe negre de vara

Ulei cu trufe - ulei de măsline cu bucăți de trufe

Pateu cu trufe - foaie gras, baton din ficat de rață sau gâscă cu trufe negre la mijloc

Miere cu trufe: miere polifloră cu trufe negre de vară

Vodcă de trufe (Black Moth Vodka) - vodcă în care s-au infuzat trufe negre de Perigord

Carpacio de trufe - felii foarte subțiri de trufe la borcan

Ciocolata - ciocolata din bucati de trufe negre

Unt cu aromă de trufe sau salsa cu unt și trufe

La sfâșitul anului 2007, din regiunea unei singure localități, Franța obținea o producție record de circa 4,5 tone de trufe pe lună.

În anul 2013, prețul trufelor negre era de 400 de euro pentru un kilogram. [19] În anul 2014, prețul a scăzut la 60 de euro pentru un kilogram. [19]

Cea mai scumpă trufă a fost vândută în 2007 proprietarului unui cazino din Macao, care a plătit 330.000 de dolari pentru 1,5 kilograme de trufe albe.

Toamna este sezonul pentru festivalurile locale cu trufe în diferite regiuni din Italia, Franța și Spania. Iată câteva dintre acestea: [20]


Video: Τρούφες με ζαχαρούχο γάλα. Chef στον Αέρα